Symptoms: Pain in the heel of the foot and arch that is especially bad first thing in the morning.
Causes: The fascia on the sole of the foot is pulled taut, often by a tight soleus (a deep calf muscle), and the pressure of running creates microscopic tears and inflammation.
Prevention: A combination of stretching and strengthening are key to keeping your feet happy. Bending your knee when stretching your calf will help focus the lengthening on the soleus. Here's a standing soleus stretch, or you can try a seated foot stretch too. For strengthening, add some toe scrunches into your daily routine. You might feel like a cat pawing the floor as you literally scrunch your toes, pulling them back toward your heel, but it takes less than a minute to do 50 reps and is really worth your time.
If you are currently experiencing any of these pains, the best advice is to decrease your training — you can always cross train (bike, swim, run in water — as long as it doesn't create pain) and ice. If you have chronic issues in any of these areas, make an appointment with a physical therapist and get to the root of the problem before the problem because too big.