Research on detection, diagnosis, and staging
At this time, mammograms are the most effective tool we have to detect changes in the breast that may be cancer. But researchers are studying the combination of mammograms and ultrasound. They are also exploring positron emission tomography (PET) and other ways to get detailed pictures of breast tissue.
In addition, researchers are studying tumor markers. Tumor markers may be found in blood, in urine, or in fluid from the breast (nipple aspirate). High amounts of these substances may be a sign of cancer. Some markers may be used to check breast cancer patients for signs of disease after treatment. At this time, however, no tumor marker test is reliable enough to be used routinely to detect breast cancer.
Ductal lavage also is under study. This technique collects cells from breast ducts. A liquid flows through a catheter (very thin, flexible tube) into the opening of a milk duct on the nipple. The liquid and breast cells are withdrawn through the tube. A pathologist checks the cells for cancer or changes that may suggest an increased risk of cancer.