Which Is Better: Treadmill or Elliptical?
Here, fitness experts share which cardio machine—the elliptical or treadmill—is better based on your fitness and health goals.
The cardio room is rife with a rivalry more contentious than Kanye vs. Taylor-obviously, we're talking about the elliptical vs. treadmill.
Sure, both pieces of equipment are classified as cardio machines, but each has its own advantages and disadvantages. To figure out whether the elliptical or treadmill is better, we took the question to fitness experts.
Best for tracking progress: Treadmill
The biggest benefit of running on a treadmill is that they're easy to use and micro-programmable, says Mackenzie Banta, a personal trainer with Trainiac, a personal training app-everything you need is right on the screen in front of you.
Because treadmills are so high-tech these days, they're incredible tools for data, says Karli Alvino, a run coach at Mile High Run Club in New York City. "You can track time, distance, segment time, and pace on most treadmill models, so you can easily track your progress." The screen doesn't lie, which makes it a great accountability tool and way to see improvements week over week. (Related: The 30-Day Treadmill Workout Challenge That's Actually Fun)
On the flip side, because there's more variation between different elliptical machines and manufacturers, one mile on one elliptical can require a different amount of work than one mile on another.
Best if you have an injury: Elliptical
The biggest benefit of the elliptical is that they're lower impact than the treadmill, says Manning Sumner, C.S.C.S., a certified strength and conditioning coach for RSP Nutrition. Your foot is in constantly on the pedal, which eliminates the force of picking your foot up and placing it back down with all your bodyweight (which happens while running), he explains. This makes it a great option for both people who are workout beginners, returning from a gym hiatus, or who have injuries.
"Since the elliptical has a significantly lower impact on the major joints, it's a safer and more accessible way for people with knee, hip, or back injuries to get a good aerobic workout," adds Banta. Even if you don't have a preexisting lower-body injury, incorporating the elliptical occasionally may help prevent wear-and-tear on the body. (Related: This Boxing-Style HIIT Workout Is Designed for People with Knee Pain)
Best for race training: Treadmill
While treadmills may be higher impact than ellipticals, they're a lower-impact running option compared to the pavement, explains Banta. "Treadmills get a bad rap for being a high-impact training tool, but they're not," she says. "The treadmill has less impact on the body, especially the feet, knees, and hips than running on pavement because a treadmill is built to absorb some of that impact." (BTW, did you know there's a cutting edge pace-matching treadmill that could make pacing even easier?)
Unlike the elliptical, which operates on a set moving pattern, the treadmill also gives you the opportunity to focus on running form, which will translate to both the pavement and the trails-a major perk for folks training for outdoor races. (Related: 8 Treadmill Mistakes You're Making)
Best for a full-body workout: Elliptical
Most elliptical trainers combine a leg and arm motion. "Because there are handlebars that you push and pull against resistance, you're getting a full-body workout," says Banta.
Yes, your arms are indeed moving enough to strengthen your upper body, agrees Allen Conrad, D.C., C.S.C.S., a chiropractor and certified strength and conditioning coach. (Specifically, your triceps, upper back, shoulder, and chest muscles.) Increase the resistance or add in some arm-only intervals for an even better arm pump.
Plus, because you're using your lower and upper body at the same time, your core has to engage to keep your body balanced, says Banta. You can even try pedaling backward to change the muscles being worked and target the hamstrings, glutes, and calves differently.
Best to strengthen your legs: Treadmill
That said, the treadmill can strengthen your leg muscles if you take advantage of the machines incline range, says Conrad. Moving on an incline is like doing hill runs but on steroids. Running on a variety of inclines will force you to engage your quads, glutes, calves, and core to a greater degree. Why? Because you have to work against gravity even if the incline angle isn't super steep.
Friendly PSA: "If sprinting or running is too hard, you can walk at an incline and still get great strength results," says Sumner.
Best to burn more calories: Treadmill
Let's be clear: Both cardio machines are better compared to the alternative of performing zero cardio and both can be used to burn calories, says Alvino.
"But when comparing apples to apples, the treadmill will earn you a greater calorie burn than the elliptical," she says. That's because any time you have to pick your foot up off the ground, your body is going to use more energy than when your foot stays planted. (Here are some tips to max out your treadmill workout for even more benefits.)
That said, how hard you're working plays a role: For instance, a slow, 20-minute jog on the treadmill won't burn as many calories as going H-A-M on the elliptical set to high resistance.
Whichever machine you opt for burning calories, Alvino suggests sticking to interval-based training, which has been shown to burn fat and boost metabolism. (If you're on the treadmill, try these running interval workouts; if you're on the elliptical, try this interval plan.)
Best for weight loss: Either
You're probably wondering which machine is better from a weight loss perspective. Sumner says there's no clear winner on this front. "Neither is 'better' you just need to figure out what's best for you," he says. This will depend on which machine you prefer, if you have any preexisting injuries, and which machine helps you personally reach your goals.
"Both the treadmill and the elliptical are great tools for weight loss," agrees Banta. "When combined with a healthier diet, both can help individuals log the caloric deficit necessary for weight loss." (More: How to Create Your Own Workout Routine for Weight Loss).
To save money: Elliptical
If you're reading this because you're not sure whether to purchase a treadmill or elliptical for your home gym, know that ellipticals are generally less expensive. For instance, the top-selling elliptical on Amazon only costs $260, compared to the top treadmill's $600 price tag.
Note: Neither treadmill nor elliptical workouts can take the place of strength training, says Banta. So you might consider buying an elliptical and using the savings on other affordable at-home gym equipment like dumbbells or kettlebells. (Not sure which elliptical to invest in? Check out the Shape elliptical picks.)
So, which is better: elliptical or treadmill?
"Ultimately, it depends on your body and your goals," says Conrad. The treadmill mimics the natural movement of running outside, which makes it a better option for race and sports training. But the elliptical is the lower-impact option of the two, so it's a safer and better option for folks with ankle, hip, and knee issues.