The Plant-Based Diet Benefits Everyone Should Know

Whether you're going full-fledged vegan or just stocking up on kale, you can score plenty of plant-based diet benefits.

Vegan poke bowl with avocado, tofu, rice, seaweed, carrots and mango, top view. Vegan food concept.
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Plant-based eating is becoming one of the most popular eating styles — and for good reason. The potential plant-based diet benefits include great things for both your health and the environment. Almost one-third of Americans say they are actively trying to reduce their consumption of meat and dairy, according to the Plant Based Foods Association. Last year, 28 percent of people reported eating more protein from plant sources, 24 percent had more plant-based dairy, and 17 percent ate more plant-based meat alternatives than they did in 2019, a survey by the International Food Information Council found.

The desire for a more wellness-oriented lifestyle is fueling the trend. Health is the key reason 56 percent of people choose plant-based proteins, according to a 2020 report from the market research company Mintel, while environmental impact and animal welfare are the top concern for 26 percent, according to Mattson Consulting.

"There's been a lot of emerging science, as well as older studies, that has shown health benefits to eating plant based," says Keri Gans, R.D.N., a nutritionist in New York and a Shape Brain Trust member. "Also, with the concerns about climate change and sustainability, a plant-forward diet has gained even more momentum."

But what does plant-based really mean, and are the plant-based diet benefits all they're hyped up to be? Here's the scoop, including how to start a plant-based diet for beginners.

What Is a Plant-Based Diet, Exactly?

Truthfully, it can be kind of confusing, since the term is not clearly defined.

"In the past, the definition of 'plant-based' (as used by nutrition researchers and organizations) has meant a diet based primarily on plants; however, the definition has emerged to mean different things to different people," says Sharon Palmer, R.D.N., The Plant-Powered Dietitian. More recently, people have been using the term to mean a 100-percent plant-based vegan diet, she notes.

On the other hand, registered dietitian Amy Myrdal Miller, M.S., R.D.N., F.A.N.D., founder and president of Farmer's Daughter Consulting in Carmichael, California, defines plant-based more broadly as, "following the Dietary Guidelines and the MyPlate pattern where the majority of foods come from plants (like fruits, vegetables, grains, nuts, plant-based oils)."

"'Plant based' does not necessarily equal vegetarian or vegan," adds Gans. "It means you are trying to include more plants in your diet, like 100 percent whole grains, fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, and seeds." It's also not about sticking to a strict regimen or giving up meat, poultry, or fish — if you don't want to. "You might be completely plant based one day but have a burger the next," says Gans.

For example. the Mediterranean diet — which emphasizes plant foods and fish, along with some eggs, poultry, and dairy — is considered plant based. The bottom line is that "'plant based' is about intentionally including plant foods at every meal you eat," says Gans.

It's worth noting that, while the list of plant-based diet benefits is a long one, following a vegetarian or vegan diet doesn't automatically mean you're eating healthy. That's because most of the health benefits described below don't simply come from reducing animal products — they come from increasing consumption of healthy, whole foods.

"Whether you're eating a plant-based diet with plants and a smaller amount of animals or decided to go vegan, eating more plants in your diet has numerous benefits," says Myrdal Miller. Here, some of the plant-based benefits you can score whether you decided to go full-fledged veg or just opted to eat more plants.

Plant-Based Diet Benefits

1. Lower Risk of Heart Disease

One of the most significant plant-based diet benefits? Extensive research shows that people who consume the most fruits and vegetables have the lowest risk of cardiovascular disease, says Myrdal Miller.

One study by the Icahn School of Medicine at New York's Mt. Sinai Hospital looked at more than 15,000 people with no known issues of heart disease who followed one of five dietary patterns including convenience (fast food and fried food), plant-based (fruits, vegetables, beans, fish), sweets (desserts, candy, sugary breakfast cereals), southern (fried foods, organ meats, processed meats, sugar-sweetened beverages), and salad and alcohol (salad dressings, vegetable salads, alcohol). The study followed these individuals over four years and found that those who stuck to a plant-based diet had a 42-percent decreased risk of heart failure compared to those eating fewer plant foods.

Again, scoring plant-based diet benefits isn't just about limiting animal foods; food choices matter. (It's kind of like clean vs. dirty keto.) Another study published in 2018 in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology examined the food choices of male and female health professionals and created a plant-based diet index to gauge the healthiness of their diet. Healthy plant foods (such as whole grains, fruits, vegetables, oils, nuts, and legumes) were given positive scores, while less-healthy plant foods (such as sugar-sweetened beverages, refined grains, fries, and sweets, and animal foods) received a reverse score. The data revealed that a more positive score was associated with a lower risk in coronary heart disease.

The study shows that it's not about having any type of plant-based food (like French fries) but rather the quality of the plant-based foods you select that's most important. Your plant-based diet should still consist of well-balanced plants like whole grains, fruits, vegetables, oils, nuts, and legumes, that are prepared and cooked in a healthful manner. (Try these plant-based diet recipes for every meal of the day.)

2. Lower Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

Eating a plant-filled diet can also help prevent type 2 diabetes. A 2017 article published in the Journal of Geriatric Cardiology looked at the potential plant-based diet benefits on type 2 diabetes based on numerous studies. One of them examined the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in relation to different eating patterns and found that it was less common in diets with reduced animal products.

Based on this and numerous other observational studies examined in this review, scientists concluded that eating a plant-based diet may help improve insulin resistance, promote a healthy body weight, increase fiber and phytonutrients, allow for better food and microbiome interactions and decrease saturated fat.

3. Decreased Risk of Obesity

You may have heard that one of the main plant-based diet benefits is weight loss. Well, clinical and observational research shows that adopting a plant-based diet may help reduce risk of becoming overweight and obese — and even help promote weight loss according to a 2017 review article published in the Journal of Geriatric Cardiology.

Interestingly enough, even moderate adherence to a vegetarian diet could prevent overweight and obesity in middle age, according to 2018 research by the European Association for the Study of Obesity — showing that you don't have to go 100 percent vegan and can still lose weight including lean sources of animal protein in your diet.

"Research on populations who follow vegetarian eating patterns shows they have lower rates of overweight and obesity," agrees Myrdal Miller. (

4. Decreased Risk of Cancer

A surprising plant-based diet benefit: Eating a plant-based diet (along with other healthy behaviors) may actually help decrease your risk of cancer.

A 2013 study published in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention followed about 30,000 post-menopausal women for seven years and found that women maintaining normal body weight, limiting alcohol, and eating mostly-plant based was linked to a 62-percent reduction of breast cancer compared to women who did not follow these three guidelines.

A report by the American Institute for Cancer Research backs that up, saying that a healthy diet and lifestyle behaviors could prevent 40 percent of cancer cases. That's why the American Institute of Cancer Research (AICR) recommendations eating a plant-based diet, primarily consisting of fruit, grains, beans, nuts, and seeds, with some animal foods for cancer prevention. This type of diet helps you get a variety of plant foods' cancer-protective nutrients such as fiber, vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals, according to the AICR. The AICR recommends filling your plate with 2/3 (or more) of plant foods and 1/3 (or less) of fish, poultry or meat, and dairy.

5. Environmental Benefits

True, there are plenty of plant-based diet benefits for your body — but it can have some larger implications for the Earth as well. (

"It takes fewer inputs (water, fossil fuels) to produce these plant foods, and they do not produce outputs like manure or methane that can be harmful to the environment," says Palmer. "In today's agriculture, so much of our crop production goes to feeding animals, when we could just eat crops directly rather than feeding them to animals and eating the animals." That's one of the reasons Palmer says that the environmental impact is higher in animal foods compared to plant foods.

"Study after study has shown plant-based eaters have a lower environmental footprint," she says. "This is true of carbon emissions, as well as issues like water footprint and land usage (the amount of land it takes to grow food)." (You can also reduce your diet's environmental impacts by curbing your food waste.)

Before you demonize all animal food production, know that plant and animal agriculture are actually pretty integrated. "Livestock upcycle much of the leftovers from crop processing, essentially taking the waste products generated from producing the plant-based foods we like to eat and upgrading them into other food products," says Sara Place, Ph.D., senior director for Sustainable Beef Production Research.

For example, in California, juice production from oranges leaves the rest of the fruit (pulp and peel) after processing, and this citrus pulp is often then fed to cattle resulting in the production of beef and milk. Almond hulls (the portion of the nut surrounding the meat that humans eat) are also fed to dairy cattle, converting what could be waste into nutritious food. Suddenly that choice between almond milk, cow's milk, and orange juice don't seem so different.

How to Start a Plant-Based Diet for Beginners

To score those plant-based diet benefits and incorporate more animal-free foods onto your plate, don't overthink it. "Just include more plants in your meals," says Gans. "And go for variety."

For example, here's what some plant-based diet meals might look like:

  • Breakfast might be oatmeal with a sliced banana or berries and nut butter, or poached eggs on whole-grain toast with avocado and tomato.
  • Lunch might be a salad tossed with chickpeas, quinoa, and grilled vegetables, or a sandwich made with whole-grain bread and grilled chicken, hummus, and greens, with fruit for dessert.
  • Dinner could mean whipping up a veggie stir-fry with tofu one night; the next, making a small filet mignon or some grilled salmon with sautéed spinach and roasted new potatoes.

On a plant-based diet, you can even get all the protein you need from sources like beans and legumes, nuts, seeds, and whole grains like quinoa and brown rice, research shows. Just aim for the right amount: Active women require 0.55 to 0.91 gram of protein per body weight daily, according to the American College of Sports Medicine. Be sure to consume foods rich in protein after exercise for muscle building and repair, says Gans. (This guide will show you how to get enough plant-based sources of protein.)

TL;DR: Incorporating different kinds of foods you enjoy will help you score all the plant-based diet benefits — because you'll get a range of vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients — and make it even more delicious.

Updated by Pamela O'Brien
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